If you are working on a woodworking project, you would definitely need wood glue to keep the pieces attached before sanding. But how long does it take for wood glue to dry? The shortest answer to this question would be 20-24 hours. But if you wish your artwork to stand the test of time, then you must take into consideration certain other aspects as well.
- 1 Factors Affecting Glue Drying Time
- 2 Types of Wood Glues
- 3 How Long Does Wood Glue Take to Dry? – TheTimeline
- 4 Curing Vs Drying
- 5 Best Practices for Glue Drying
Factors Affecting Glue Drying Time
There are certain factors that affect the time that wood glue takes to dry. It is very necessary to consider the following factors:
The amount of moisture present in the air plays a great role in determining the drying time. So, you must check the humidity of your area to decide the time you need for the wood glue to dry.
Low humidity makes wood glue to dry quickly, while it takes considerably longer when the humidity is high. Consider checking the weather reports or use a hygrometer to know the humidity and then decide the time accordingly.
If the humidity is high, consider increasing the drying time from that on the instruction.
The temperature of a place is also an important factor to consider. Extreme weather conditions can affect the glue drying time. Still, it is advisable to rely on the natural temperature, even if it causes a delay. Using a heat machine to increase the temperature to get faster results may have an adverse effect on your project.
Clamping is the process of joining wood with the help of clamps to hold the pieces together until the glue dries. The pressure used while clamping the wood boards also affects the drying time. Low pressure might delay the drying time, and the bond may not be strong enough too.
High pressure ensures fast drying, but it may weaken the bond if the glue escapes through the side due to the pressure. So, the pressure must neither be too high nor too low.
Type of Wood
The type of wood used can also affect the time. If your wood contains moisture, then it will take a longer time for the glue to dry. Actually, wood glue makes use of the process of dehydration in order to dry. It releases the stored moisture in order to harden itself and form a bond. The released moisture is then sucked up by the wood.
But if the wood already has moisture in it, it will absorb less moisture from the glue, and hence it will take more time to dry. So, it is recommended to use treated woods that are moisture free and hence would speed up the glue drying process.
Quality of Wood Glue
Last but not least, the quality of the wood glue is a huge determining factor for the drying time. Various types of wood adhesives are available in the market. It is better to choose only the high-quality waterproof glues for the best results.
Low-quality glues may be cheaper or dry faster but are not reliable. Always do proper research before choosing which glue to use. Make sure you choose the best one to create a strong wooden project.
Types of Wood Glues
As stated earlier, the amount of time wood glue takes to dry depends on the type of glue you use. Here is a list of wood glues that you might like to use in your wooden project:
Polyvinyl Acetate Adhesive:
Affordable, readily available, and easy to use, PVA is very popular among woodworkers. It is available in liquid form. Another added advantage of PVA is that it has no color and no odor. It takes 18-24 hours to dry after 30 minutes of clamping.
However, you have to be very careful while using this glue. Make sure you wipe it off from places where you don’t need it; else, it will be visible and ruin the quality of your project. It works with wood, plaster, paper, and foam; but is not so great for plastics, rubber, and metals.
- Use a damp cloth to wipe off excess wet glue as it does not take stain like the wood and is visible. Excess can be scraped off or sand dried too.
- Mask the cracks with tape on one side of the joint before applying this adhesive.
- Keep the surfaces clean, dry, and free from any contaminants.
- A minimum temperature of 50F is to be maintained. Some types require high temperatures. Be sure to check that before use.
- Apply adhesive to both the mating surfaces with a brush or roller.
Carpenters have been using this glue for years. Previously it was available in glue foam with powdered granules. But now it is available in liquid form as well. This glue is highly suited for furniture assembling. It takes about 24 hours to dry without clamping. But it is not waterproof. So, use it only if you are not working on any waterproof projects.
- A good mixture would be a combination of 1 part hide and 2 parts water
- The glue joint would loosen up by simply warming it up.
- Heat it prior to use as dry pearls are required to be mixed with water. Let the water stand for absorption once it is added. Then heat it in a commercial glue pot or double boiler.
- Keep the surfaces dry, clean, and free from any contaminants
- Enhance wetting properties by adding 1% white vinegar to the solution.
- Keep the glue at around 140 F while you are using it.
This glue is widely used for wooden projects that involve outdoor exposure. It is fuel-proof and water-resistant, and hence well suited for outdoor projects. It can form strong bonds if you mix the resin and the hardener in the correct proportion. Plus, it has a high drying speed of 20 minutes to a few hours. It works on wood, glass, fiberglass, paper, metals, and plastics.
- Keep the surfaces dry, clean, and free from any contaminants. Oily substances, if any, on the surface should be cleaned with acetone.
- Proper mixing in one-to-one proportion is crucial. Mix thoroughly till you achieve a uniform color.
- Do not use it for very tight-fitting joints
- Distribute a non-active pigment to the resin to add color. Mix it well with resin and then add the hardener.
- Best results can be observed at a temperature above 50F but you can use temperatures around 35F as well.
It is also known as super glue or instant glue for its fast-drying ability. However, it is used only as a temporary coating to hold the wood pieces together before giving it the final touch. It dries within 8 to 24 hours without clamping.
But for larger projects, it may take more time. However, the glue cures very hard and might break under impact. It works best for wood, plastic, and metals.
- Keep the surfaces clean, dry, and free from any contaminants
- The best temperature for using this adhesive is between 55F and 86F.
- Do not apply excess. A thin application is recommended. Excess can cause blooming, crazing, and frosting. It will also cause longer dry times and curing problems.
- To prevent it from wicking into surrounding portions, you can use spray shellac in and around inlay areas.
- A tap by a mallet or a hammer will separate the dried glue blocks.
- Be careful with your fingers as it bonds instantly.
Polyurethane Wood Glue:
Also known as Gorilla glue, this glue is waterproof and hence is suited for outdoor projects. It works by absorbing moisture to expand and create a strong bond while drying. It takes 24 hours to dry with 2 hours of clamping.
- Keep the surfaces clean, dry, and free from any contaminants
- Do not use at a temperature below 50F as it will lead to the thickening of glue making it difficult to disperse.
- Excessive wet adhesive can be cleaned up with acetone or mineral spirits, and dry adhesive can be removed with a chisel.
- As the adhesive cures, it will expand and foam. Be aware of the mess it can cause.
- Apply adhesive to one mating surface for bonding. For extremely porous materials, apply to both the surfaces before assembling.
How Long Does Wood Glue Take to Dry? – TheTimeline
Let’s understand the actual wood gluing timeline in detail here:
While you are working with wood glues, drying is the physical process in which the adhesive loses all the liquid components. This results in the bonding of the portions to which the glue is applied.
Drying time is the total time starting from the application of glue to the wooden surface and pieces, making secondary adjustments if needed, attaching clamps for strength to finally removing the clamps after the joints have strengthened a bit. It is divided into different segments namely assembly time, open assembly time, closed assembly time, and clamping time.
It is basically the sum total of the open assembly time and closed assembly time. This means it denotes the time starting from gluing the wooden boards to the wooden surface, positioning them if required to make adjustments, and finally making a transition to the application of the clamps.
Open Assembly time
Open assembly time is the time interval between the application of the glue to the wooden surface and the wooden pieces that have to be bonded on that surface. In the case of complicated projects, glues of larger open assembly time are recommended to be used. This will provide you more time for the attachment of a large number of pieces.
Closed Assembly time
Closed assembly time refers to the period after the open assembly time when you have already glued your wooden pieces to the wooden surface but left with the time for adjustments.
In this period of close assembly time, you can reposition the wooden pieces if needed, to give them the perfect shape. Yet you have to make sure to do this before the adhesive grabs.
To provide strength and support to the wooden pieces which have been glued together and left for curing, the wooden pieces are clamped. This makes them immobile, not allowing them to change their positions.
This certain period of time when the wooden pieces have to be clamped before the glue has cured is called the clamping time.
Curing is the chemical process in which the adhesive undergoes crystallization, thus losing all its initial properties. They attain their final properties after acquiring new characteristics which helps them to build up strong bonds to attach the wooden pieces.
This provides final strength and durability to the structure. The time required to attain this final strength after the wooden pieces are clamped together is called curing time.
Curing Vs Drying
While working on a wood project, it is very important to know whether your glue has just dried or is it really been cured.
Drying is when your glue is structurally sound to hold the pieces of wood together on its own without the clamps. But that doesn’t mean that it has cured. The glue needs to reach its full bond strength in order to withstand years of usage. This is called curing.
Thus, it takes a long time for wood glue to cure completely. So, give some time to your glue to fully cure after it’s dry. Make sure that your glue is completely cured before you use your woodwork; else, it might not last long.
Best Practices for Glue Drying
Here are some practices to adopt to get the best results in glue drying:
- Research the type of wood glue you would prefer for your project before buying one. Make sure it’s of the best quality and in line with your time preferences.
- Check the back of the glue bottle to read the instructions to know the working time, unstressed drying time, and stressed drying time.
- Consider all the factors like humidity, temperature, and the type of wood you are using to determine how much time you need to invest in the wood glue to dry completely. Be careful with the clamp stress and your choice of the glue.
- Wait at least 24 hours before putting your woodwork to use. Let the glue cure completely. It is always better to be safe than sorry!
There are multiple factors affecting the amount of time wood glue takes to dry. All of them are important aspects that determine whether your artwork will stand the test of time.
So, be patient and give your wood glue all the time it needs to dry for long-lasting results. Put in your time and effort, and your woodwork will turn out to be a masterpiece.